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2017年考研英語(二)真題第4篇 The Human Connection With Fire

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Though often viewed as a problem for western states,

盡管日益頻發的野火常被視為西部州的問題,
the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars,
但由于它對聯邦稅收的巨大影響,目前已成為一件舉國關切之事,
says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management.
林火生態與消防管理專家馬克思·莫里茨表示。
In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires,
美國林務局每年用于防火的預算是55億美元,2015年它的防火費用首次超過了這個預算的一半,
nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago.
幾乎是二十年前在這方面支出比例的一倍。
In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency's other work,
事實上,現在用于該機構其他工作的聯邦基金減少了,
such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep
諸如森林保護、集水區及文化資源管理以及基礎設施的維護,
that affect the lives of all Americans.
這些工作影響了所有美國人的生活。
Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts.
另一件舉國關切之事是,來自其他機構的公共基金是否將用于火災易發區的建設。
As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?
正如莫里茨教授所說,用于建設家園的聯邦資金可能會被吞沒到火災中的頻率如何?
"It's already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country," he says."
他說:“從公共支出的角度來看,這對整個國家來說已經是一個巨大的難題”,
We need to take a magnifying glass to that.
對此,我們需要用放大鏡來看這個問題。
Like, "Wait a minute, is this OK?"
比如說,等一下,‘這樣做可行嗎?’
"Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?"
還是我們轉而想要把那些資本改道用于地景的低風險區域呢?
Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say.
研究者說,這樣的觀念需要當今美國社會在看待火災的方式上做出相應的改變。
For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive.
首先,有關火災的會談應該更具包容性。
Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change,
在過去的十年,人們的關注點一直都在氣候變化上,
how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.
即,源于溫室氣體的地球變暖如何誘發火災惡化的環境。
While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn't come at the expense of the rest of the equation.
莫里茨教授說,盡管氣候是一個關鍵因素,但是不能以犧牲其他影響因素為代價。
"The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways," he says.
他說:“人類系統與我們賴以生存的地景是相互聯系的,而且這種相互聯系是雙向的”,
Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to "an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be.
不能認識到這一點就會導致“我們對于可能性解決措施的看法過于簡單化。
Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited."
我們對問題的認識以及對問題解決辦法的認識變得極其有限。
At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity,
與此同時,人們仍舊把火災視為需要全面控制且只有在必要之時才需要釋放的事件,
says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado.
科羅拉多大學的鮑爾奇教授說。
But acknowledging fire's inevitable presence in human life
然而,承認火災在人類生活中的必然存在這一態度,
is an attitude, crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says.
對于制定確保火災盡可能安全的法律、政策以及慣例才是至關重要的,她如是說道。
"We've disconnected ourselves from living with fire," Balch says.
鮑爾奇教授說,“我們已經把我們自己與火災剝離開來,
"It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today."
理解并盡力梳理人類當今與火災的關系至關重要。

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impact ['impækt,im'pækt]

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n. 沖擊(力), 沖突,影響(力)
vt.

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crucial ['kru:ʃəl]

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adj. 關鍵的,決定性的

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perspective [pə'spektiv]

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n. 遠景,看法,透視
adj. 透視的

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perception [pə'sepʃən]

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n. 感知,認識,觀念

 
greenhouse ['gri:nhaus]

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n. 溫室,暖房

 
limited ['limitid]

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adj. 有限的,被限制的
動詞limit的過

 
disconnected [,diskə'nektid]

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adj. 分離的;無系統的;不連貫的 v. 分離(dis

 
conservation [.kɔnsə:'veiʃən]

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n. 保存,防止流失,守恒,保護自然資源

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recognize ['rekəgnaiz]

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vt. 認出,認可,承認,意識到,表示感激

 
shift [ʃift]

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n. 交換,變化,移動,接班者
v. 更替,移

 
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