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新疆的職業技能教育培訓工作(4)(中英對照)

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III. Content of Education and Training

三、教育培訓的內容
In order to effectively contain and systematically remedy the dissemination of religious extremism and frequent terrorist incidents, Xinjiang has set up vocational education and training centers in some prefectures and counties.
為有效遏制宗教極端主義蔓延擴散、暴力恐怖案(事)件多發頻發勢頭,新疆依法開展教育培訓工作,在一些區、縣設立教培中心。
These centers are education and training institutions in nature. To meet the needs of fighting terrorism and extremism, these centers deliver a curriculum that includes standard spoken and written Chinese, understanding of the law, vocational skills, and deradicalization.
教培中心屬于學校性質。針對新疆反恐、去極端化的實際需要,設置了以學習國家通用語言文字、法律知識、職業技能以及去極端化為主要內容的教學課程。
To remedy their lack of proficiency in spoken and written Chinese, tailored language programs are provided to trainees. The education and training centers have solid constitutional and legal authority to conduct such programs. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the Law of the People's Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language protect the freedom of all ethnic groups to use and develop their own spoken and written languages. At the same time, the Constitution and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language specify that the state promotes the nationwide use of Putonghua, that all citizens have the right to learn and use the standard spoken and written Chinese language, and that the state provides citizens with the conditions to enable them to do so.
針對學員使用國家通用語言文字普遍水平低的問題,開展國家通用語言文字培訓。教培中心開展國家通用語言文字培訓有充分的憲法和法律依據。《中華人民共和國憲法》以及《中華人民共和國民族區域自治法》《中華人民共和國國家通用語言文字法》均保障各民族有使用和發展自己的語言文字的自由。同時,《中華人民共和國憲法》和《中華人民共和國國家通用語言文字法》也規定,國家推廣全國通用的普通話,公民有學習和使用國家通用語言文字的權利,國家為公民學習和使用國家通用語言文字提供條件。
The education and training centers fully guarantee citizens' right to learn and use standard spoken and written Chinese conferred by the Constitution, and provide trainees with the facilities required for their studies. They employ qualified teachers, using textbooks compiled especially for the trainees, teaching in the same way as in regular schools in order to rapidly improve their ability in the use of standard spoken and written Chinese. Improving the trainees' command of standard spoken and written Chinese helps them to learn about science and technology, acquire vocational skills, seek work in other locations, communicate with other ethnic groups, and adapt better to life in modern society, subject to the condition that their right to use their own ethnic spoken and written languages is respected. There is no intention to deprive or limit the trainees' right to use and develop their own ethnic languages.
教培中心充分保障憲法賦予公民的學習和使用國家通用語言文字的權利,為學員提供學習條件。安排有教師資格的國家通用語言專業教師,使用專門為學員編寫的教材,按照普通學校授課方式,快速提升學員使用國家通用語言文字的能力。國家通用語言文字的培訓,是在尊重少數民族使用本民族語言文字權利前提下進行的,目的在于增強掌握和使用國家通用語言文字的能力,使學員獲得學習科學文化知識、職業技能、外出經商務工、與其他民族群眾交流、適應現代生活的語言工具,而不是要剝奪或者限制使用、發展本民族語言文字的權利。
To remedy a lack of understanding of the law, the education and training centers present legal courses, which is taken as the key link to strengthen national, civic and legal awareness. Judges, procurators and lawyers are invited to give lectures on laws and regulations, including the Constitution, the Law of the People's Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, General Provisions of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China, Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China, Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Women's Rights and Interests, Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Minors, Labor Law of the People's Republic of China, Labor Contract Law of the People's Republic of China, Education Law of the People's Republic of China, Vocational Education Law of the People's Republic of China, Counter-terrorism Law of the People's Republic of China, Public Security Administration Punishments Law of the People's Republic of China, Regulations of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Deradicalization, Measures of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Implementing the Counter-terrorism Law of the People's Republic of China, and Regulations of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Religious Affairs. Through their studies, the trainees have developed a better understanding of their civil rights and obligations, a realization that they have the same entitlement to these rights and obligations as others, and an acceptance that they must abide by the Constitution and laws and act in accordance with the rights and obligations they confer.
針對學員普遍缺乏法治意識,開設法律知識課程。教培中心將學習法律知識作為培養學員增強國家意識、公民意識、法治意識的關鍵環節。聘請法官、檢察官、律師等講授《中華人民共和國憲法》《中華人民共和國民族區域自治法》《中華人民共和國刑法》《中華人民共和國民法總則》《中華人民共和國婚姻法》《中華人民共和國婦女權益保障法》《中華人民共和國未成年人保護法》《中華人民共和國勞動法》《中華人民共和國勞動合同法》《中華人民共和國教育法》《中華人民共和國職業教育法》《中華人民共和國反恐怖主義法》《中華人民共和國治安管理處罰法》和《新疆維吾爾自治區去極端化條例》《新疆維吾爾自治區實施〈中華人民共和國反恐怖主義法〉辦法》《新疆維吾爾自治區宗教事務條例》等法律法規。通過學習,使學員增強對公民權利義務的認識,建立平等享有權利、履行公民義務的觀念,自覺遵守國家憲法法律,按照憲法法律賦予的權利和義務行事。
To remedy lack of occupational skills and employment difficulties, vocational skills training programs are provided. The education and training centers regard vocational skills as an important channel to improve the trainees' employability. Based on local demand and employment opportunities, the courses they present include garment making, food processing, assembly of electronic products, typesetting and printing, hairdressing and beauty services, e-commerce, auto maintenance and repair, interior design and decoration, livestock breeding, pomiculture, therapeutic massage, household services, handicrafts, flower arrangement, rug weaving, painting, and the performing arts such as music and dance. Eligible trainees who are willing to learn are offered training in more than one skill to ensure they are employable in the jobs market upon completing their study at the centers. The education and training centers combine course learning with practical training to improve the trainees' operational skills. Practical training is conducted in classes rather than through employment in factories or enterprises, or obligatory labor.
針對學員缺乏職業技能、就業困難的問題,開展職業技能培訓。教培中心將學習職業技能作為提升學員就業能力的重要途徑,根據當地需求和就業條件,設置服裝鞋帽加工、食品加工、電子產品組裝、排版印刷、美容美發、電子商務、汽車維修、建筑裝飾、畜牧養殖、果樹栽培、保健推拿、家政服務、手工藝品制作、插花、地毯編織、繪畫、樂器演奏、舞蹈演藝等培訓課程,對其中有愿望有條件的學員進行多技能培訓,確保學員結業后能夠較為熟練地掌握1-2門職業技能。教培中心注重將課程學習與實訓操作相結合,提高學員實際操作能力。實訓操作是實踐教學,不是在工廠務工,不是在企業就業,更不是強制勞動。
As trainees have fallen under the influence and control of religious extremism to a greater or lesser extent, the centers integrate deradicalization into the whole process of education and training. Through step-by-step teaching of laws and regulations, policies on ethnic and religious affairs, and religious knowledge, and by exposing the damage caused by terrorism and religious extremism, the centers give trainees a full and accurate understanding of the national policy of freedom of religious belief. In order to rehabilitate the trainees, these courses teach the trainees to distinguish between lawful and unlawful religious activities, understand how religious extremism runs counter to religious doctrine, and realize the evil nature and serious harm of terrorism and religious extremism so that they can eventually break free from the influence and control of terrorism and religious extremism. Education and training at the centers never interferes in the trainees' freedom of religious belief and the centers have never made any attempts to have the trainees change their religious beliefs.
針對學員不同程度地受宗教極端主義影響和控制的問題,教培中心將去極端化貫穿全過程。通過分階段學習法律法規、民族宗教政策和宗教知識,揭露恐怖主義、宗教極端主義的危害,使學員全面準確了解國家宗教信仰自由政策,深刻認識到什么是合法宗教活動、什么是非法宗教活動、什么是宗教極端主義,真正明白宗教極端主義完全違背了宗教教義,努力使學員認清恐怖主義、宗教極端主義的罪惡本質和嚴重危害,擺脫其影響和控制。教育培訓從不干預學員信仰自由,從未進行改變學員宗教信仰的教學活動。

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